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Working with Frameworks

If you are working with a Javascript framework, chances are good that you will need to make some changes in order to improve accessibility. Since any number of frameworks can be in use at Stanford, this page simply offers a collection of accessibility resources for a range of frameworks. Please feel free to submit additions and/or updates.

WAI-ARIA Widgets

This page offers a few articles/references for each of several common ARIA Widgets. It will be most helpful if they are considered in the context of other ARIA-related pages on the SOAP site. Note that some of the selections focus on usability, but they have been included because accessibility and usability go hand-in-hand.

Widgets are listed in alphabetical order, and this is, by no means, an exhaustive list of those that may need ARIA roles, states, and properties added to them. Please remember to attend to focus-management and keyboard interactivity.

WAI-ARIA Landmarks

Applying ARIA Landmark roles (landmarks) is one of the easiest parts of ARIA implementation. You are likely to find that Content Management Systems, such as Drupal and WordPress, already apply at least some of these roles by default.

Landmarks permit screen reader users to navigate a page, and eventually, it may be that browser vendors will implement keyboard shortcuts for landmarks so that everyone can use them.


Here, you will find a collection of pattern libraries that focus on accessibility. Many, but not all, of them pertain to WAI-ARIA.

Often, links will take you directly to Git repositories that contain code hosted by individuals. As usual, please be sure to test any patterns that may seem to suit your needs since the accessibility landscape (like the general technology landscape) is constantly evolving and improving.

Screen Reader Testing


When many people think of web accessibility, they primarily imagine screen reader users. However, as the SOAP site demonstrates extensively, these are not the only users who have accessibility needs when using the web or online applications. In fact, though statistics regarding screen reader use (not to mention specific screen readers used) are difficult to come by, those who use screen readers are a relatively small population. Note, by the way, that not all screen reader users are blind; others with print-reading disabilities may also find screen readers useful.



While the primary focus of the SOAP site is to help you make Web sites and dynamic applications accessible, it is crucial to make documents posted online accessible, too. Often, these documents contain important instructions, policies, guidelines, or forms that are intended to be downloaded and reviewed/completed offline.

As with web sites, it is much easier to create accessible documents, from the start, than it it is to fix them once they have been posted (and perhaps even re-posted elsewhere).



Creating accessible PDF documents starts by following accessibility practices during the authoring process. Whether you are using word-processing applications like MS Word or Open Office, or desktop publishing and design tools, such as Adobe InDesign, integrating accessibility into the authoring process will improve PDF document accessibility and deliver content to a wider audience.


The Web Accessibility Initiative has created techniques and guidance to help developers make web applications, widgets, and other JavaScript-based functionality accessible. Together, this collection of techniques is known as WAI-ARIA, or typically ARIA, for short. ARIA (the term we will use on this site) stands for Accessible Rich Internet Applications.

Microsoft Office


Microsoft provides extensive documentation in support of accessibility to many of its products and services. Not only does it offer guidance on making Office products accessible, as will be discussed further below, but it also offers direction for those who are developing Windows-based applications. Developers will want to explore the Accessibility Developer Hub.

Safari and WebKit

For those who are working on accessibility using Safari and WebKit, there are some tools available, though as yet, there seem to be fewer than for other browsers.

Apple provides guidance for developers with respect to working with Safari and assuring accessibility. The Safari Developer Library is the best place to start.


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